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The credit crisis in the Euro zone: implications for Israel

Senat # 399 - 12/5/2010

ABSTRACT:

The Euro zone was launched in 1999 with 11 member states, and by 2009 another five EU states joined it. The main dilemma which occupied the founders of the zone was the temptation of the governments in member states to develop large deficits, with the interest rate at the same level for all the zone’s countries and therefore not serving to punish a spendthrift government. Two solutions to this problem were first the prohibition in the Maastricht Treaty (the legal basis of the Euro zone) of the rescue of governments from their deficits, and second the signing of a Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) which restricts the amount of public deficits. Another significant challenge to the zone’s members is contending with asymmetrical shocks, that is, shocks which have a differential impact on the various members.

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The tax system composition: The relation between direct and indirect taxation

Senat #397, October 2010

ABSTRACT

The taxation systems in most countries are based on two primary kinds of taxes: “direct taxes,” which are “directly” imposed on income or property, and “indirect taxes”, imposed on expenditure for purchasing services or goods.

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Operation Cast Lead - Causes, Conduct, Preliminary Results and Significance

Senat #362, February 2009

ABSTRACT

Operation Cast Lead is another milestone in the conflict between Israel and Hamas, but its significance, causes and results, go beyond the narrow borders of the Gaza strip. The operation will be assessed mainly by its long-term regional consequences, and not for its immediate, palpable results.

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Main Indicators for Israel compared with OECD Countries

Senat #357, December 2008

ABSTRACT

In May 2007, the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) invited Israel to negotiations for joining the organization. The process of joining the OECD is lengthy, as the joining country must pass a series of evaluations of its ability to meet the organization’s standards in various policy areas. Israel’s suitability to the OECD is examined according to a list of indices set by the organization, which include population data, macro-economic trends, employment and education

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Heterogeneity in Israeli Education

Senat #356, December 2008

ABSTRACT

In historical perspective the success of Israel in establishing a unified school system is unsurpassed. Serving Jewish immigrants from all parts of the world who came here with very little in common – different languages, diverse cultures and often disparate values, and serving the Arab Israeli community as well, Israel achieved almost universal enrollment up to the 12th grade, and made Hebrew a universal language with flourishing literature, poetry and drama. However, the stories of these endeavors merit separate analyses, starting from the integration of immigrants from Islamic countries, through the recent immigration from the former communist block and that of Ethiopians.

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The Demographic Balance in the 21st Century in the Territory of the former British Mandate

Senat #343, December 2008

ABSTRACT

According to the Palestinian population census, 3,761,000 Palestinians lived in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza at the end of 2007. According to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, as of the end of 2008 5.4 million of Israel’s residents are Jewish and 1.4 million are Arabs (the rest, 320,000, are non-Jewish immigrants). Soffer’s group believes that these figures indicate that close to half of the residents west of the Jordan are Arabs, threatening the Jewish majority in this area.

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Jerusalem – Between the Defensive Barrier and a Settlement or an "Historical Basin" and an "Outlying Neighbourhood"

Senat #329, November 2007

ABSTRACT

The new borders of Jerusalem, established after the Six Day War, were meant to further the Israeli capital's political and defensive prospects given any settlement with Jordan more than to emphasize its new or historical municipal boundaries, established prior to the city's imposed division in 1948. Defensible territory, enhancement of Jewish demographic superiority by attaching open spaces for the construction of new Jewish neighbourhoods, a municipal airport, a Jewish cemetery, the economic isolation of Jerusalem from the West Bank, and land ownership were the main considerations that motivated Israel's government to approve, only 17 days after the war, the proposal forwarded by the Special Commission to extend Jerusalem's jurisdiction by 70,000 dunams (1 dunam=1,000 sq.m.) in the direction of the West Bank.

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In Preparation for the Annapolis Peace Conference

Senat #328, November 2007

ABSTRACT

 

The current state of affairs indicates that the Annapolis peace conference will be held in a number of weeks. A detailed schedule has yet to be confirmed, nor has an agenda or list of invitees despite the sincere desire and sense of urgency expressed by the main actors, Ehud Olmert and Mahmoud Abbas as well as their broker, Condoleeza Rice, who enjoys total support from President Bush.

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The Gaza Strip and the West Bank – Two Sides of the Same Political Coin

Senat #322, July 2007

ABSTRACT

It is to the long-term interest of Israel's and the PLO to include Hamas in the governmental entity representing the Palestinian people because, inter alia, this entity will be responsible for signing the Permanent Agreement that determines the conditions under which the refugees' right of return will be effectively renounced.  In the short term, it will therefore be to Israel's benefit to work with Hamas for the purpose of introducing stability and calm in Gaza. Only such dialogue will be able to guarantee the time required for the rehabilitation of the PLO by means of a string of measures, at the centre of which lies renewed negotiations. By facilitating the transformation of the PLO into an effective alternative to Hamas, these measures will further implementation of a permanent agreement

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Democratization of the Arab World: A Shattered Vision

Senat #294, December 2006

ABSTRACT

Three years after publication of the ambitious program for a new, more democratic Middle East, it seems appropriate to re-examine the successes as well as failures of the program by reviewing the developments in Iraq, the country meant to spearhead the process. Democratization in Iraq should be examined along three distinct but interrelated dimensions: vision, implementation and outcomes.



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The High Court of Justice on Israel's Citizenship Law: Will the Prohibition against Family Reunification be Sustained?

Senat #290, December 2006

ABSTRACT

A person's right to family life is a human right recognized in international as well as comparative law, anchored as it is in the legal systems of countries such as Ireland, Germany, France and the United States. A crucial question regarding this right is whether a sovereign state is duty-bound to thwart the reunification of families when only one of the spouses is a citizen of the receiving country.

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The Battle Over the Health Basket

Senat #288, December 2006

ABSTRACT

 

On occasion, a group of patients suffering from a serious disease is able to recruit public support, and media coverage for its battle, pity and sympathy for the addition of a new medication to the drug basket. The last confrontation involved sufferers of colon cancer, who conducted a 16-day hunger strike while demanding that the drugs Avastin and Erbitux be added to do the basket. Their successful battle forced the government to add NIS 350 million to the drug basket in 2006 beyond the sums already allocated to update the basket (NIS 360 million).

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The Administrative and Political Crisis in the Palestinian Authority

Senat #286, July 2006

ABSTRACT

In the wake of recent parliamentary elections and the rise of Hamas, the political situation in the Palestinian Authority (PA) has continued its deterioration to the point where fears of anarchy, a humanitarian crisis and even civil war are intensifying. These snowballing trends, which are instigating tumult on the PA’s streets, are likely to incite additional threats, including threats to Israel.

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Israel’s Convergence Program

Senat #285, July 2006

ABSTRACT

 

The Convergence Program has been put forth as the core of Ehud Olmert’s term of office as Israel’s Prime Minister. He publicly stated this agenda during his victory speech, delivered at the conclusion of the 17th Knesset elections: “During the coming years, we will aspire to fix the permanent borders of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic State enjoying a Jewish majority.”

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Special Report: Nuclear Proliferation in the Middle East

Senat #283, March 2005

ABSTRACT

Iran represents the main axis for exploration of nuclear proliferation in the contemporary Middle East. The eyes of the majority of the world, but especially nations located in the Middle East, are tensely focused on Iran in anticipation of how the crisis will be resolved and whether the international community’s efforts to halt Iran will succeed. If Iran becomes a nuclear state (or arrives at the stage where its decision to become nuclear will reside exclusively within its own domain), such an event will represent a highly significant modification of the status quo in the Middle East, with far-reaching consequences for Israel and the entire region.



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Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President of Iran A New President with Even More Aggressive Policies

Senat #277, December 2005

ABSTRACT

Iranian politics continue to draw the considerable attention of its citizens and the international community due to its policies, which have weighty implications for the West as well as for Israel’s security. Almost 27 years after ascendance of the Islamic régime, it appears that the Islamic Revolution has yet to conclude, with the Iranian people still seeking some method to realize the yearnings that fuelled its fires.

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Turkey and the European Union: Announcement of the Membership Talks

Senat #273, December 2005

ABSTRACT

On October 3, 2005, the European Union declared its intent to begin membership talks with Turkey. The European declaration, which received Ankara’s blessings, stated that the purpose of the talks was to explore Turkey’s full integration in the EU although it was explicitly noted that such membership could not be guaranteed at so early a stage.

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Security Implications of Disengagement from the Gaza Strip and Northern Samaria

Senat #271, July 2005

ABSTRACT

In this edition of Senat, we analyse the immediate direct and indirect implications for security of the Israeli government''s disengagement plan. A land division is currently responsible for the defence of the settlements and all military operations in the Gaza Strip, with an additional auxiliary land brigade stationed in Northern Samaria.

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The Israeli Economy: Current Conditions, Short- and Long-Term Forecasts

Senat #268, July 2005

ABSTRACT

Current Conditions The Composite Index released by the Bank of Israel in May 2005 indicated a decline of 0.1%. This is the fourth consecutive decline in the index, a trend that contradicts the improvements observed during the parallel period in 2004. This decline reflects a reduction in the rate of economic activity as of early 2005.

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Israel's Electoral System: Characteristics, Drawbacks and Proposals for Reform

Senat #261, July 2005

ABSTRACT

Electoral systems - the mechanisms by which the citizen’s voice is translated into representation in governing institutions - significantly affect the character of political systems and governance in democratic countries. Were we to argue that electoral systems simply reflect the distribution of political power, we would be compelled to observe that over time, these systems help sustain that same distribution of the power.

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The Measurement of Poverty and income distribution as Conducted by Israel''s National Insurance Institute

Senat #135, January 2001

ABSTRACT

The data recently published by Israel's National Insurance Institute (NII) on the number of poor and the increase in the rate of poverty-stricken children do not present an authentic picture of Israeli society. The NII profile is only partial; it stresses poverty among children, a rate influenced by the measurement methodology used, but does not adequately relate to one sector of the population that is unwillingly entrapped in the cycle of poverty resulting from contraction of Israel's labour market. We are referring to the non-Jewish (primarily Arab) sector of Israeli society. In addition, the poverty index employed does not sufficiently differentiate between the working poor and those excluded from the labour market, circumstances that grant the latter greater leisure but may also enable them to reap greater benefits from this situation than do the working poor.

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The Current Conflict between Israel and the Palestinians: The Options Available

Senat #128, November 2000

ABSTRACT

The events, clashes, and exchanges of fire witnessed over the past few weeks in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem have brought Israeli-Palestinian relations to a new juncture. For the majority of the Palestinian public and leadership, the deterioration came as a total surprise. However, for those at the extreme poles of Israel’s political map, these events had been anticipated well in advance.

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The Palestinian and Israeli Economies: The Price of Separation

Senat #127, November 2000

ABSTRACT

Among the several reasons motivating the outbreak of the Intifada during the declining days of 1987, socio-economic factors occupied a prominent place. During that period, the Palestinian Authority as a formal governing entity did not yet exist. Furthermore, the Palestinian population’s economic dependence on Israel was almost absolute. With the signing of the Oslo Agreements and the establishment of the Palestinian Authority, the scope of the Palestinian economy could be delineated more accurately. The degree of damage brought on by these and other events could then be estimated. It soon became clear that the Israeli economy would likewise suffer negative impacts from such disruptions. The consequences of those events leads us to the necessary conclusion that if the planned separation between the two economies is implemented, the economic damages to both economies will snowball.

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The Palestinian Refugees: Some Major Factors Defining the Issue

Senat #119, November 2000

ABSTRACT

The Oslo Agreement stipulated that one of the issues to be negotiated by Israel and the PLO within the framework of a Permanent Status Agreement is that of the Palestinian refugees. The two sides agreed that the term "Palestinian refugee" pertains to those members of the Palestinian population that became refugees as a result of the war waged in Eretz Israel/Palestine in 1947-1949.

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Israel Negotiations with the Palestinians: What are the Prospects for Signing a Permanent Status Agreement in Just Five Months?

Senat #114, May 2000

ABSTRACT

The three meetings held between Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Chairman Yassir Arafat during the first week of March, and the renewal of the Israeli-Palestinian peace talks in Washington, barely released some of the tremendous tension that has been accumulating in the Palestinian Authority (PA) during recent months. It is reasonable to assume that in the absence of these events, the PA would have witnessed a massive outburst following the visit of Pope John Paul II.

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Water and the Syrian-Israeli Negotiations

Senat #110, April 2000

ABSTRACT

As the inauguration of the peace talks between Israel and Syria approached, during the Sheppardstown round of talks, public and political interest turned to water as a key issue in the negotiations. Israel’s and Syria’s divergent attitudes to water should be viewed against a background populated not only by security issues, border alignments, and water as important factors in the negotiations, but also, apparently, by beliefs, emotions, and even phobias that have penetrated the issue over the decades.

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The Syrian and Israel Peace Talks: The End of the Dispute?

Senat #102, January 2000

ABSTRACT

On 15 December 1999, the peace talks between Syria and Israel resumed in Washington. They had been halted by Israel in March 1996 after Damascus refused to condemn the Hamas terrorist attacks that had rocked Jerusalem and Tel Aviv in the preceding months.

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Israel’s National Elections Results Report No. 6

Senat #89, November 1999

ABSTRACT

At the close of the 1999 elections, Ehud Barak won a landslide victory (he received 12% more votes than did Netanyahu in the current election). Nonetheless, the outcome of the Knesset elections has not parallel that victory. No party or sectoral representative has been able to translate the results into clear-cut political gains. These results buttress Barak’s position as attempts to form a government. A paradox, however, has evolved: whereas Barak is undoubtedly the nation’s leader, the candidate who received an overwhelming mandate to determine the public agenda and make the crucial decisions before the nation, his majority is useless in the face of a splintered parliament.

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Israel’s Upcoming National Elections Report No. 5

Senat #88, November 1999

ABSTRACT

If all five candidates for prime minister continue to run, no decisive result is expected at the first round of voting despite evidence of Barak’s widening lead during the last two weeks. Eight days before going to the polls (9 May), the electorate remains divided: Ehud Barak: 42%; Benjamin Netanyahu: 37%; Yitzchak Mordechai: 7%; Benny Begin and Azmi Bishara: 6% (jointly); Undecided: 8%.

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Israel’s Upcoming National Elections Report No. 4

Senat #87, May 1999

ABSTRACT

The main political issue being debated is the creation of a Palestinian state. Both factions, right and left, hold fundamentally opposing view on the subject. The Likud “totally rejects the establishment of an Arab Palestinian state on the opposite bank of the Jordan River”; it offers Palestinians “self-government but not an autonomous and independent state”. These adamant objections to a Palestinian state are expressed in the warnings concerning a one-sided declaration of its establishment, an act that would instigate the “nullification of the Oslo Agreements and the Wye Memorandum”, as well as the initiation of “grave and immediate measures”.

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The Release of Palestinian Prisoners

Senat #80, December 1998

ABSTRACT

The first stage in the planned release of Palestinian prisoners, in compliance with the terms of the Wye Memorandum, left the Palestinian social and political leadership stunned. The release of 150 criminals, as well as 100 other prisoners —according to the Palestinians, the majority of these prisoners were not really held for security offences; furthermore, they included only a small number of the “Fatah fighters”, several of whom were scheduled to be released within a few months — represented a public insult.

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The Wye River Memorandum and Its Implications for the Peace Process

Senat #73, November 1998

ABSTRACT

The Wye River Memorandum breathed new life into the political process conducted between Israel and the Palestinians, and reawakened hopes for the resumption of negotiations aimed at reaching a peace agreement between the two sides. Among broad segments of the Israeli public, the memorandum was perceived as a visible manifestation of the ideology of peace fostered by the late Prime Minister Yitzchak Rabin. To them, the agreement represented a further step on the road toward a permanent settlement with the Palestinians, one that would bring an end to the Israeli-Arab conflict.

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The Second “Beat” — Percentages and Security Considerations

Senat #64, July 1998

ABSTRACT

The Israeli government argues, and undoubtedly quite rightly, that even if political agreements were to be reached with all our neighbours, especially the Palestinian Authority, they would still not guarantee our arrival at the pacific shores that would allow us to forego military readiness and the capability to confront the threats to our security that may arise if, heaven forbid, the agreements prove to be worthless.

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Public Attitudes Concerning Women’s Representation in Local Government

Senat #60, May 1998

ABSTRACT

This report presents the findings of a survey on public attitudes concerning women’s suitability for local government and the disposition to support women candidates for public office (i.e., mayors, heads of local council or local council members). The survey was conducted during the second week of April 1998, among a representative sample (512 interviewees) of Israel’s Jewish population.

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Khatami’s Election as President of Iran: Does It Really Bear Tidings of Change?

Senat #58, November 1998

ABSTRACT

Khatami, who achieved an impressive victory in the May 1997 elections for president of Iran, attained another important success when the Majles, Iran’s parliament, confirmed all 22 of his candidates to ministerial posts (20 August 1997).

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The Israeli Public’s Attitudes toward Wage Earners from Foreign Countries: A Comparison of Survey Results, 1995 — 1997

Senat #56, July 1998

ABSTRACT

As a result of the 1993 border closings, the number of wage earners from foreign countries employed in Israel increased substantially. Conservative estimates place their current number at 250,000, half of whom are illegal (i.e., lacking work permits). It is commonly believed that their presence is the direct result of short-term security problems; therefore, the phenomenon can be ignored (for instance, on the municipal level) or eliminated by means of swift deportation.

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A New Settlement Policy for the Negev Bedouins

Senat #47, April 1998

ABSTRACT

For centuries prior to 1948, the year the State of Israel was established, the Bedouin nomads had been the Negev’s almost exclusive residents. The size of the community, in 1947, was approximately 90,000, whose members belonged to about 90 tribes. By 1948, the majority of the population was already occupied in agriculture. Only a small minority continued to be engaged solely as shepherds, roaming with their flocks along rather limited perimeters from their settlements.

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Further Redeployment of Israeli Forces in the West Bank

Senat #43, December 1997

ABSTRACT

According to the agreements signed between the Israeli government and the PLO, Israel has committed itself that powers and responsibilities relating to territory will be transferred gradually to Palestinian Jurisdiction that will cover West Bank and Gaza Strip territory, except for the issues that will be negotiated in the permanent status negotiations.

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The State of the Palestinian Economy after Oslo

Senat #42, December 1997

ABSTRACT

The Oslo Agreement and its economic counterpart, the Paris Agreement, aroused hopes for economic co-operation as well as accelerated growth and economic prosperity for the Palestinians. However, in reality, the opposite has occurred.

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Legislation Regarding Direct Election of Israel’s Prime Minister

Senat #39, December 1997

ABSTRACT

The governance structure currently in effect, resulting from the passage of legislation establishing direct election of the prime minister, was formulated as a compromise between the advocates of a presidential system and those supporting a parliamentary system. The legislation therefore contains elements of both.

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The Allon Plan and the Netanyahu’s Proposal

Senat #30, June 1997

ABSTRACT

During June 1997, the media reported the outlines of a proposal offered by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu as a basis for the permanent settlement to be reached between Israel and the Palestinians. The program, presented during a Security Cabinet meeting, was referred to by Netanyahu as the Allon Plan - Plus. According to reports, the program entailed the creation of Jewish settlement clusters that would include the Greater Jerusalem area, especially Gush Etzion and Ma’ale Adumim, the entire Jordan Valley, large concentrations of settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the area along the perimeter of the Green Line, the network of roads constructed to bypass the Arabic villages and towns, and sources of water.

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Wage Earners from Foreign CountriesImplementation Recommendations of the Special Committee

Senat #27, June 1997

ABSTRACT

In response to the government decision (October 1996) to reduce the Israeli economy’s dependence on wage earners from foreign countries, a special ministerial committee was established to suggest ways to implement that decision. The primary recommendations made are presented in the following.

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From Dreams to Reality — Economic Facts about the Palestinian Economy

Senat #25, June 1997

ABSTRACT

When the World Bank first began talking about “developing the Occupied Territories” and investing “in peace” during the summer of 1993, it represented an unprecedented moment for the Palestinian people, a moment the offered Palestinians the opportunity to participate in devising their own development strategy. Following lengthy negotiations between the PLO, Israel, and the World Bank, a neo-liberal model of economic regeneration emerged. The model advocated an overall strategy of economic liberalization, coupled with minimum state intervention for the purpose of promoting private sector growth.

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After Hebron

Senat #15, March 1997

ABSTRACT

The withdrawal from Hebron, the transfer of civilian powers to the Palestinian Authority, and the redeployment of Israeli troops outside the city’s Arab neighborhoods do not cover the totality of Israel’s obligations regarding the redeployment of Israeli forces in the West Bank and Gaza, to be fulfilled within the framework of the Interim Agreement. The following stage, which involves three additional redeployments beyond the boundaries of the Palestinian Authority, constitutes a portion of the commitment made by Israel within the framework of the Interim Agreement of September 1995.

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The Implications of the Religious Conversion Law

Senat #12, June 1997

ABSTRACT

The Order of Religious Congregation (Conversion) provides the legal framework for the regulation of religious observance and affiliation in Israel. An individual who, after undergoing conversion from one religion to another, seeks legal recognition of that conversion, can receive a certificate confirming acceptance into the congregation from its official head or an appointed agent.

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US-Israel Relations After the November Elections

Senat #10, December 1996

ABSTRACT

The election of Bill Clinton to a second term as the 42nd President of the US represents an expression of faith in his economic policy and the direction in which he is steering the country. Clinton is the first Democratic president to be reelected since Franklin Roosevelt despite the trend, becoming apparent in recent years, of a general shift in voter support to the Republican Party (in other words, Republics now comprise a "natural majority"). This trend was manifested in the election of Republican majorities to both houses of Congress, as well as the continued control of 31 of the 50 governorships.

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The Peace Process and Economic Trends in the Israeli Economy

Senat #4, November 1996

ABSTRACT

The Peace Process, Ratings, and Foreign Investors As of 1985, Israel has slowly been improving its status on the international credit ratings. This improvement implies that the risk associated with investing in Israel has declined.

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